'Best ex', dark trading and dual-listed shares are among issues.
The new EU regulations come into effect on 3 January 2018.
Brexit may end reciprocal fund access between the UK and the EU.
MiFID aims to make research costs more transparent to investors.
Will the rule set boost the appeal of Europe as a trading destination? Sponsored by Interxion.
AIFMD excludes non-EU managers and reduces capital available for infrastructure.
Increased data transparency should improve market quality.
Pre-trade and post-trade transparency requirements are likely to have the greatest impact.
The proposals are aimed at Europe but could be adopted globally over time.